Threatening event, or probability of occurrence of a potentially damaging phenomenon within a given time period and area.
Natural hazards are naturally occurring physical phenomena caused either by rapid or slow onset events which can be geophysical ( earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, and volcanic activity), hydrological ( avalanches and floods), climatology ( extreme temperatures, drought, and wildfires), meteorological ( cyclones and storms/wave surges) or biological ( disease epidemics and insect/ animal plagues.
Technological or man-made hazards( complex emergencies/ conflicts, famine, displaced populations, industrial accidents, and transport accidents) are events caused by humans and occur in or close to human settlements. This can include environmental degradation, pollution, and accidents. Technological or man-made hazards ( complex emergencies/conflicts, famine, displaced populations, industrial accidents, and transport accidents).
There is a range of challenges, such as climate change, unplanned-urbanization, under-developed/poverty as well as the threat of pandemics, that will shape humanitarian assistance in the future. These aggravating factors will result in increased frequency, complexity, and severity of disasters.
A lahar is a type of natural event closely related to a volcanic eruption and involves a large amount of material originating from an eruption of a glaciated volcano, including mud from the melted ice, rock, and ash sliding down the side of the volcano at a rapid pace. These flows can destroy entire towns in seconds and kill thousands of people, and form flood basalt. This is based on natural events.
A landslide is a mass displacement of sediment< usually down a slope. It can be caused by pressure pulling natural objects down a declining hill.
A sinkhole is a localized depression in the surface topography, usually caused by the collapse of a subterranean structure such as a cave. Although rare, large sinkholes that develop suddenly in populated areas can lead to the collapse of buildings and other structures.
- Volcanic eruption
A volcanic eruption is a point in which a volcano is active and releases its power, and the eruptions come in many forms. They range from daily small eruptions which occur in places like Kilauea in Hawaii, to the mega-colossal eruption supervolcanic event at Lake Toba reduced the human population to 10,000 or even 1,000 breeding pairs, creating a bottleneck in human evolution. Some eruptions from pyroclastic flows, which are high-temperature clouds of ash and steam that can travel down mountainsides at speed exceeding an airline.
Seismic waves at the Earth’s surface, earthquakes may manifest with shaking or displacement of the ground; when the earthquake occurs on the seafloor, the resulting displacement of an ocean or seawater can sometimes result in a tsunami. Most of the world’s earthquakes ( 90%, and 81% of the largest) take place in the 40,000-km-long, horseshoe-shaped zone called the circum-Pacific seismic belt, also known as the Pacific Ring of Fire, which for the most part bounds the Pacific Plate. Many earthquakes happen each day, few of which are large enough to cause significant damage.
- Coastal erosion
Coastal erosion is a physical process by which shorelines in coastal areas around the world shift and change, primarily in response to waves and currents that can be influenced by tides and storm surge. Coastal erosion can result from long-term processes as well as from episodic events such as tropical cyclones or other severe storm events.
METEOROLOGICAL OR CLIMATE HAZARDS
- Ice storm
An ice storm is a particular weather event in which precipitation falls as ice, due to atmospheric conditions. It causes damage.
A wildfire is a fire that burns in an uncontrolled and unplanned manner. Wildfires can result from natural occurrences such as lightning strikes or human activity. These occur without any warning.
- Geomagnetic storm
Geomagnetic storms can disrupt or damage technological infrastructure, and disorient species with magnetoception.
- Climate change
Climate change can increase or decrease weather hazards, and also directly endanger property due to sea-level rise and biological organisms due to habitat destruction.
A blizzard is a severe winter storm with icy and windy conditions characterized by low temperature, strong wind, and heavy snow.
A drought is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water, or groundwater. Scientists warn that global warming and climate change may result in more extensive droughts in the coming years. These extensive droughts are likely to occur within the African continent due to its very low precipitation levels and high temperatures.
A hailstorm is a natural hazard where a thunderstorm produces numerous hailstones which damage the location in which they fall. Hailstorms can be especially devastating to farm fields, ruining crops and damaging equipment.
A heatwave is a hazard characterized by heat that is considered extreme and unusual in the area in which it occurs. Heatwaves are rare and require specific combinations of weather events to take place, and may include temperature inversions, katabatic winds, or other phenomena. There is potential for longer-term events causing, global warming, including stadial events (the opposite to glacial ”ice age” events), or through human-induced climatic warming.
- Cyclonic storm
A cyclone is a large-scale air mass that rotates around a strong center of low atmospheric pressure.
Hurricanes, tropical cyclones, and typhoons are different names for the cyclonic storm system that forms over the oceans. It is caused by evaporated water that comes off of the ocean and becomes a storm. The Coriolis effect causes the storms to spin.74mph (119km/h). Hurricane is used for these phenomena in the Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans, tropical cyclones in the Indian, and typhoons in the western Pacific.
A tornado is a natural disaster resulting from a thunderstorm. Tornadoes are violent, rotating columns of air that can blow at speeds between 50 mph (80km/h) and 300mph (480km/h), and possibly higher. Tornadoes can occur one at a time or can occur in large tornado outbreaks associated with supercells or in other large areas of thunderstorm development. Waterspouts are tornadoes occurring over tropical waters in light rain conditions.
A fllod results from an overflow of water beyond its normal confines of a body of water such as a lake, or the accumulation of water over land areas.
An avalanche occurs when a large snow( or rock) mass slides down a mountainside. An avalanche is an example of gravity current consisting of granular material. In an avalanche, much material or mixtures of different types of material fall or slide rapidly under the force of gravity. Avalanches are often classified by the size or severity of consequences resulting from the event.
Disease is a natural hazard that can be enhanced by human factors such as urbanization or poor sanitation. Disease affecting multiple people can be termed an outbreak or epidemic.
- Insect / animal plaquaes
Biological hazards include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other living organisms that can cause acute and chronic